Chapter III: Family, Marriage and Kinship


Chapter III
Understanding Social Institution
Family, Marriage and Kinship
What is institution?

Institution
Ø  Something that works according to rules or customs.
Ø  It control on individuals
Ø  It gives individual opportunities 

Ø  A social institution is a complex, integrated set of social norms, beliefs, values and relationships (functionalist view).
Ø  It satisfy human needs

The important social institutions are :
Ø  Family, Marriage and Kinship
Ø  Politics
Ø  Economics;
Ø  Religion; and
Ø  Education.
o   family, marriage and kinship (informal)
o   law, education, etc. (formal)


Family, marriage and kinship
Family
Ø  Family is the basic unit of the society
Ø  Simplest form of society
Ø  A family care giving unit might consist of a couple; a mother, father and children; a single parent and child; grandparent and grandchildren; a sibling group; a circle of friends; or however that family defines itself.
Ø  Families are the foundation of society.
Ø  Latin origin: ‘famulus’ and ‘familia’ –means servant and household.
Ø  In ancient times, the family is a group of producers, slaves, servants  and members by common descent or marriage.
Ø  In modern times, the family is a durable association of husband and wife, with or without children. It is a group of persons united by marriage, blood or adoption.

Functions of family
Ø  the first function is to procreate and maintain the species.
Ø  Socialization –Transmit culture, values to next generation.
Ø  Affectional
Ø  Economic functions
Ø  Emotional Security
Ø  Recreational functions
Ø  Protective functions
Ø  Religious functions and
Ø  Educational functions.
Ø  Socialization

Types of Family
Ø  Nuclear Families
o   Consists of a mother, father, and one or more children.
Ø  Blended Families
o   A family in which both spouses have children from previous relationships
Ø  Step Families
o   Families that include children from a previous relationship
Ø  Adopted Families
o   Families that include children that are not biologically theirs
Ø  Single Families
o   An individual living alone
Ø  Single Parent Families
o   Includes only one parent, the mother or the father, who lives with the children. Single parents may be divorced, widowed, unwed, or abandoned.
Ø  Extended Families
o   Is made up of nuclear or single-parent families plus other relatives such as grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins.
Ø  Childless Families
o   Families with no children
Ø  Nuclear and Joint family
Ø  Matriarchal and Patriarchal Family



Importance of family

Ø  Human society cannot function without family.
Ø  A child learns the norms and culture in the family
Ø  Sociologist consider the family as the cornerstone of the society.
Ø  It is universal, found in all communities.
Ø  It is based on emotion and sentiments .
Ø  It moulds the character of its members and influences the whole life of society.
Ø  It is permanent


According to the functionalists:
Ø  The family performs important tasks, which contribute to society’s basic needs and helps maintain social order.

Ø  They argues that modern industrial societies function best if women look after the family and men earn the family livelihood.

Ø  The nuclear family the best equipped unit to meet the demands of industrialised society.


Family and Gender
q The incidence of female foeticide has led to a sudden decline in the sex ratio.
q The percentage of decline in the child sex ratio is more alarming. The situation of prosperous states like Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra and western Utter Pradesh is all the more grave.
q In Punjab the child sex ratio has declined to 793 girls per 1,000 boys. In some of the districts of Punjab and Haryana it has fallen below 700.

Types of Family

Matrilocal family: 
      is a term referring to the societal system in which a married couple resides with or near the wife's parents.

Matriarchal Family/ Matrifocal Family: 
      refers to the mother or oldest female heads the family. Descent and relationship are determined through the female line. 

Patriarchal Family/ Patrifocal Family:
      refers to males hold primary power, in the domain of the family, fathers or father-figures hold authority over women and children.

Nuclear family:  
      consists of husband and wife and their children.

Extended family:  
      ncludes grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins.
Forms of family (Various Dimensions)
Structure
Father, Mother and Unmarried children only
Nuclear
Minimum three generation live together
Joint
Residence
Newly married couple stay with the bridegrooms parents.
Patrilocal
Newly married couple lives with the brides parents.
Matrilocal
Authority
In the family men exercise authority and dominance
Patriarchal
Women play major role in decision making
Matriarchal
Inheritance
Family’s inheritance through father
Patrilineal
Family’s inheritance through Mother
Matrilineal
Orientation
Family of Birth
Family of orientation
Family formed through marriage
Family of procreation
Marriage
·        Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock,
·        It is a socially or ritually recognized union or
·        legal contract between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between them
·        It is the socially sanctioned sex relationship involving two or more people of the opposite sex. 
·        Men and women get social sanction to live together through the institution of the marriage.
·        To control and regulate sex life of people
·        It is universal

According to Mazumdar:-
·        “Marriage as a socially sanctioned union of male and female”.

Purpose of marriage
·        Establishing household
·        Entering in to sex relations
·        Procreation
·        Providing care for the offspring


Forms of Marriage
Monogamy
      One person marries one women
      Most common form of marriage
Polygamy
      One person marries more than one person of opposite sex at one time.
      Man can marries more than one women and Women can marries more than one men.
Polygyny
Polyandry
      One Men marries more than one Women
      Eg: Muslims, Hindu religions
      One women marries more than one men.
      Eg: Tibetans, Todas, Kotas tribes in India.


8 Forms of Marriage in Hindu Religion
·        Brahma Marriage
·        Daiva Marriage
·        Arsha Marriage
·        Prajapatya Marriage
·        Gandharva Marriage
·        Asura Marriage
·        Rakshasa Marriage

Serial Monogamy
·        Individual can marry again on the death of first spouse or after divorce at the same time they cannot have more than one spouse.

Arranged marriage
·        In some societies parents or relatives arrange partners and the girl and boy has no choice.

Rules of Endogamy and Exogamy

Endogamy
·        Life partners can be selected only from within their group.
·        Marrying a person from within one’s own group
·        (cast, class, religion, tribe, village etc.)

Exogamy
·        Some one marries from outside the group
·        Marriage form within group is not allowed
·        Marriage between close blood-relation is not permitted.
o   Exogamy brings people of different castes, races and religion together.

Kinship
·        It  is relatedness or connection by blood or marriage or adoption. 
·        “the bond of blood or marriage which binds people together in group”
·        Kinship bonds are very strong in tribal societies and rural communities.

Types of Kinship
·        Affinal Kinship
·        Consanguineous Kinship

1. Affinal Kinship
v   Kinship by Marriage
v   When a man marries, he establishes a relationship not only with the women he marries but also with a number of other people in her family. Vise versa.
v   Eg: Husband and Wife
v   Father- in- law
v   Mother- in- law
v   Daughter- in- law
v   Son –in-law

2. Consanguineous Kinship
v Relation by blood or common ancestry.

v The bond between parents and their children 

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